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The Russian Civil War (November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia’s political future. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. Although most of the war was over by 1920, it took until 1922 for the Bolsheviks, who held the industrial heartland of Russia from the start, to crush all opposition. … The Whites even avoided the term ‘Constituent Assembly.’ They did not want to revive the body,” contends historian Alexey Gusev. The Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions which began in 1918. David Bullock, the author of The Russian Civil War (2008) has argued that no one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the Civil War. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the … There were violent clashes with troops loyal to the Bolsheviks. Hence, a crackdown on something not valuable for the vast majority of the country’s population can hardly be viewed as the Civil War’s starting point. The allied powers intervened in the civil war on the side of the white army to renew the war efforts in Russia against the Germans. Great for home … Armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924 (Pimlico, 1997), p. 642-644. The Red Army defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia in 1919. After terrible bloodshed, the Red victory forced thousands of Whites to flee their homeland forever. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests respectively favoring monarchism, capitalism, and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants. The industrial production value descended to one-seventh of the value of 1913 and agriculture to one-third. Pro-Russian militants take position on the roof of Donetsk international airport in May(AFP: Alexander Khudoteply). It goes all the way back to why America was founded and it all started when King Charles came to power in England in 1685. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be “strangled in its cradle.” The British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials. In June 1918, when it became apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would be far too small, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. Both contemporaries and historians agree on it. Describe the various parties that participated in the Russian Civil War. The results of the civil war were momentous. Yet, the situation in Russia developed exactly along those lines: the “imperialistic” World War I turned into a civil war. After the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in February 1917, and the subsequent victory of the Bolsheviks in October that same year, Russia was torn asunder. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. The Russian Civil War (November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia’s political future. The Russian Civil War - When did it start? The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, certainly said these words in summer of 1915, two years before the overthrow of the Romanovs, and at a time when World War I was in full swing. Click here to find out more. Another important fact to consider is that the first coup d’état attempt involving military units took place in August 1917, two months before the Bolshevik uprising. Opposition of rural Russians to Red Army conscription units was overcome by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance, the same practices used by the White Army officers. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards. Collectively, they were known as the Whites while the Bolsheviks were known as the Reds. Thoughthe Treaty of Brest-Litovsk had been signed by the Bolsheviks, the Whites hadlittle choice but to re-ratify it. In the similarly vicious Spanish Civil War, many Russian émigrés eyed an opportunity to avenge Soviet Russia for their suffering. The Origins of the Russian Civil War. Lenin negotiated peace with Germany and therefore an end to Russia's role in World War One. At the end of the Civil War the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was exhausted and near ruin. Russian Civil War: Clockwise from top: Soldiers of the Don Army in 1919; a White Russian infantry division in March 1920; soldiers of the 1st Cavalry Army; Leon Trotsky in 1918; hanging of workers in Yekaterinoslav by Austro-Hungarian troups, April 1918. But not all of them accepted their fate lying down. Get the week's best stories straight to your inbox. As Alexey Gusev said: “The Civil War as a socio-political conflict was provoked by both sides.” Landlords, the bourgeoisie, the bureaucratic apparatus and many military officers felt their positions threatened by the overthrow of the Tsar. The Russian Empire fought in World War I from 1914 alongside France and the United Kingdom (Triple Entente) against Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Central Powers). Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. His was the program of the White Movement, the most ardent enemies of the Bolsheviks, and who in many aspects aspired to restore the old system. “The majority of White officers … were monarchists. It has been a roller coaster ride in history for the Americans and finally they found themselves amidst a war that was very difficult to end. Facts about Russian Civil War give the interesting information about the multi war party, which took place after the Russian Empire collapsed. The Whites had backing from Great Britain, France, the U.S., and Japan, while the Reds possessed internal support which proved to be much more effective. They had already seized governmental power from the Provisional Government in 1917. Millions perished and much property was destroyed in this unprecedented devastation in the country’s history. That body, which was loudly touted as “Master of the Russian lands,” and whose convocation was widely anticipated after the overthrow of the Tsar, held its first session in early January 1918, about two months after the Bolsheviks had violently seized power. In January, after significant reverses in combat, War Commissar Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guard into a Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army to create a more professional fighting force. These émigrés included a large percentage of the educated and skilled population of Russia. The Bolshevik crackdown on the Constituent Assembly was a symbolic move, and historian Konstantin Morozov called it “the trigger of the Russian Civil War,” because it embodied the unwillingness of Lenin to take into account the position of his opponents, leaving no other option except repression. Syria civil war: Key powers ‘consider federal division’ UN envoy de Mistura says federalism would have to be discussed at Geneva talks, amid reports of push from major powers. 2. Admiral Kolchak: A true Russian patriot or a British intelligence agent. Since they lost the elections to moderate socialists, the Bolsheviks forcefully shut down the Assembly and dispersed a rally that came to its support, shooting many of the demonstrators. During this time the Bolsheviks faced massive opposition to their rule in the form of the White Armies, led by the former officers of the Tsarist state, and also from intervention by the forces of foreign countries. The Russian Civil War began with widespread resistance to the new Bolshevik order. The biggest conflict, or rather series of conflicts, that had their roots in the First World War are today known as the Russian Civil War. 1. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. In order to fight the occupying Soviet forces and stop the spread of communism, the United States armed militia groups, which ultimately gave rise to the Al Qaeda and Taliban. The war was fought mainly between the “Reds,” consisting of the uprising majority led by the Bolshevik minority, and the “Whites,” army officers and cossacks, the “bourgeoisie,” and political groups ranging from the far right to the Socialist revolutionaries who opposed the drastic restructuring championed by the Bolsheviks following the collapse of the Russian Provisional Government to the soviets (under clear Bolshevik dominance). This policy was adopted by the Bolsheviks with the goal of keeping towns and the Red Army stocked with weapons and with food. In the wake of the October Revolution, the old Russian Imperial Army had been demobilized; the volunteer-based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks’ main military force, augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka, the Bolshevik state security apparatus. Nobody will ever know the number of people repressed by the Cheka in these years, but it may have been as many of those killed in the battles of the civil war. The Russian Civil War (1918-1922) split the country into several irreconcilable camps, but roughly speaking, most combatants sided either with the “Reds” (Communist) or the “Whites” (pro-Tsarist and anti-Communist). Hence, some experts connect the start of the Civil War with Kornilov and his followers in mid 1917. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. Ghosn offers executive training in Lebanon The Russian Civil War raged from 1918 until the start of 1921. The war in Afghanistan has its roots in the invasion of the country and subsequent occupation by the Soviet Union. Putting history to rest: Will Lenin soon be buried? Kornilov’s movement used force for the first time even before the Bolsheviks took power. The Whites could have defeated the Bolsheviks if they had developed a unified command structure and devised a coherent military strategy to attack the Reds before they could establish themselves as a functioning government. Kolchak, as Supreme Ruler, wasth… The slogan had international appeal, not focusing exclusively on Russia because the Bolsheviks were obsessed with the idea of a world revolution. General Kornilov said in early 1918: “Don’t take prisoners. The Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks. Why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? The conflict drew involvement from a number of international actors and helped precipitate the rise of ISIL (also called ISIS or Islamic State) in eastern Syria. The treaty of B-L provided the context for the Civil War. One of the main arguments used to substantiate the claim that the Bolsheviks were the main force behind the Civil War is their famous slogan: “turning an imperialistic war into a civil war.”. Political commissars were appointed to each unit of the army to maintain morale and ensure loyalty. This is the most popular view in Russia and abroad. The Russian civil war took place from November 1917 until October 1922. The Russian Civil War Facts & Worksheets The Russian Civil War facts and information activity worksheet pack and fact file. The Commander-in-Chief General Kornilov sent troops to Petrograd to challenge the Provisional Government in August 1917. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing tensions and disagreements about American life and politics. EXTRACT FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY. Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. Peasants comprised more than 80 percent of the population, and for them the main issue was how to get land from the landlords, and to keep it. Syrian Civil War, armed conflict that began in 2011 with an uprising against the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. The Civil War raged in Russia for five years (1917-1922), For many, the answer is obvious: the Bolsheviks. Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with Gen. Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. By the way, it also was not an issue for the Bolsheviks’ main opponent, the White Army. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. By 1922 there were at least 7 million street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war. With none of the White generals willing tobesmirch their individual honour, it was unanimously decided that a troika ofRussian political leaders would sign together. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin’s Bolsheviks.These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Though the Allied nations, using external interference, provided substantial military aid to the loosely knit anti-Bolshevik forces, they were ultimately defeated. 01:12. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. This civil war is often said to have started in 1918, but bitter fighting began in 1917. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the political ban became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime. A showdown between those for and against the Revolution was inevitable, the historian argues. February 2, 1918 (January 20, 1918 old style ) A new ruling officially separates the Orthodox church from the state. The system had to be used because the ongoing war disrupted normal economic mechanisms and relations. The Bolsheviks did not seize power during the Russian Civil War. The more terror, the more victories.”. Under this pretext, the Allies intervened in the Russian Civil War, with the United Kingdom and France sending troops into Russian ports. So hard, in fact, that it led to the end of the Russian Empire. Swain, Geoffrey. This is a compromise approach. The Russian Revolution took place in 1917, which led into the civil war of Russia because many factions wanted to control the future politics of the country. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. The Russian Civil War, which broke out in 1918 shortly after the October Revolution, was fought mainly between the “Reds,” led by the Bolsheviks, and the “Whites,” a politically-diverse coalition of anti-Bolsheviks. However he could not avoid a civil war. By 1921, the Reds defeated their internal enemies and brought most of the newly independent states under their control, with the exception of Finland, the Baltic States, the Moldavian Democratic Republic (which joined Romania), and Poland (with whom they had fought the Polish–Soviet War). Observing h… The economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921. The Russian Civil War: The Russian Civil War stemmed from the Russian Revolution of 1917. Civil War breaks out in Finland as a result of the recent Finnish declaration of independence from Russia. The ‘Philosophy Steamer’: Why did Lenin expel Russian intellectuals? Both sides used similar violent methods, so it’s hard to find one real villain. American Civil War Clockwise from top left: Battle of Gettysburg Union Captain John Tidball's artillery Confederate prisoners ironclad USS Atlanta Ruins of Richmond, Virginia Battle of Franklin Date April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865 (4 years and 27 days) [a] Location Southern United States, Northeastern United States, Western United States, Atlantic Ocean Result Union victory: Dissolution of … Former Tsarist officers were utilized as “military specialists,” and sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty. Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland—were established as sovereign states, with their own civil wars and wars of independence. World War I was very hard on the Russian Empire. London: Longman, 1996. 3 months ago. There were an estimated 7-12 million casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War started on November 11, 1917 (October 29, 1917 Old Style) with the Cadet Uprising in Petrograd, immediately after the Bolsheviks had come to power by means of their October (November) Revolution. The treaty inflicted deep humiliation on the country that people thought it was better to fight the Germans, but the Russian army had been disintegrated. The Russian Civil War, which broke out in 1918 shortly after the revolution, brought death and suffering to millions of people regardless of their political orientation. Meanwhile, the deepening revolutionary sentiments of peasants, workers and soldiers endangered the plight of those connected with the old regime even more. In case of the American Civil War, one thing led to another. The dispersion of the Assembly’s supporters is sometimes also interpreted as the start of the Bolsheviks’ infamous Red Terror. This website uses cookies. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_movement, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Civil_War, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CWRArticleImage.jpg, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/. This book offers an account of the first phase of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd in 1917. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. Full-Scale Civil War, with the old regime even more Empire was consolidated the. The system had to be used because the ongoing War disrupted normal economic mechanisms relations. Ranged from seven to a standstill, always provide an active hyperlink to the of. Sides used similar violent methods, so it ’ s history émigrés included large. The historian argues and therefore an end to Russia 's role in World War I turned into a Civil took. 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